Teaching Strategies

Referral Words

Referral words are words which replace other words or ideas. They (The word 'They' is a pronoun and a referral word.) usually refer back to words or ideas already written about, but can refer forward. The most common referral words are pronouns. Some common referral words are listed below:

it them this those its
he that she they him
him these her below above
before following the latter the former preceding

Exercise 1
Instructions: In the sentences below the referral words are underlined. Read the sentences carefully and then write in the word that the underlined word refers to.

  1. Laura notes that she appears to view the situation differently from the rest of the family.
    she refers to _________________

  2. Mansfield's portrayal of Laura's character clearly shows how those of the middle class are brought up to treat the working class.
    those refers to ______________

  3. However, the social environment to which she is exposed raises questions in Laura's mind as to whether or not it is necessary to show consideration to those of the working class.
    she refers to _________________

Exercise 2
Instructions: Read the following passages and circle the words which refer back to the underlined word.

  1. Laura feels decidedly uncomfortable in her fancy hat and dress visiting the grieving family in what she regards as a very shabby housing area.

  2. In this statement 'people like that' refers to the working class who Mrs Sheridan obviously regards as inferior to herself. She, being of the privileged middle class, is unfeeling to those born into the working class.

  3. Mrs Sheridan is realistic. She knew that there was little she could do to change the plight of the working class. Her responsibility was to educate her children in the social graces which would help them to determine their future.

Exercise 3
Instructions: Circle the referral words in the passage and draw an arrow to the words they refer to. Underline the word that is referred to.

Referral Words Example

However, despite winning the lottery, Kiri continued with life as before. For one thing, she still did the weekly shopping for her friends and neighbours. She would have been happy to continue driving the old car, but the family insisted she buy a new one. Similarly, she bought very little for herself just, "... a couple of new dresses, and a new pair of galoshes to put over her slippers." Money did not change her personality; she remained completely non-materialistic. Her stability of character also extended to the relationships she maintained with her friends and relations as shown by her carrying on with life just as she had before the lottery win.